The Fish River Canyon is located in the southwest region of Namibia. It is the second largest canyon in the world and the largest in Africa. Public viewpoints are near Hobas, a campsite 70 km north of Ai-Ais. This part of the canyon is part of the Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park. The other 90 km of this canyon is privately owned.
Upstream the river runs through horizontal dolomite strata. These strata formed part of the canyon about 650 million years ago when plate movement cracked the earth, the first process in the formation of the Fish River Canyon. The outflow of the Fish River joins the Orange River at the border with South Africa about km from the Atlantic Ocean.